Author ORCID Identifier


Corresponding Author

Dr. Surag M. K





India has a top status among world countries, related to the COVID-19 mortality that had crossed the 3-lakh level. The second wave of COVID19 had ravaged the world countries, created havoc of the highest order, leaving many hapless, thanks to the low availability of oxygen, ICU facilities, vaccines and counselling prospects.

There is a lack of information about how COVID-19 vaccines have affected mortality in specific geographic areas.


A Retrospective record-based design. Patients were matched for age, sex, ethnicity, co-morbidities and grouped into fully immunized, partially immunized and non-immunized.

The primary outcome was in-hospital deaths and secondary outcome was severe covid infections. (Severe covid infections are defined as Category C in WHO and ICMR classification)


Vaccines administered in standard dosage confer considerable benefit by reducing severe illness, hospitalization and death. This is clearly visible by the lower proportions of those with hypoxia, high levels of markers, those requiring ICU support and death in vaccinated individuals. The type of vaccine administered did not have any influence on the severity and outcome of illness.


The second wave that peaked in May 2021 would have been less disastrous had more people been vaccinated. Without a reimagined vaccination strategy, reaching the desired full vaccination status was a difficult endeavor.

The signs are unmistakable that a combined approach involving swift vaccination and scientific measures to curb transmission holds great promise. A zero covid world looks less imminent. But humans can make the microbe less lethal.

Publication Date

Winter 2023


JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research

First Page


Last Page


Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest


Covid-19, Pneumonia, Vaccine effectiveness, Treatment

Word Count



added one author, correction in table numbering.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Cover Page Footnote

Surag MK MD, Department of General Medicine, GMCK, Pariyaram, suragsreedhar@gmail.com. Sarin SM MD, Department of General Medicine, GMCK, Pariyaram, sarinsm@gmail.com Sarosh Kumar KK MD, Department of General Medicine, GMCK, Pariyaram, kksarosh@gmail.com Ranjit Kumar KC MD, Department of General Medicine, GMCK, Pariyaram, drranjithkc@yahoo.com Udaya A Ph.D., Department of Statistics, NASC, Kanhangad, udayastat@gmail.com



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