International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences


This study aimed to differentiate the morphological characteristics, chemical constituents, and bioactive potential of Acanthaceae family plants, specifically three Phlogacanthus species and Andrographis paniculata. Under identical conditions, cutting stock plant of three Phlogacanthus species (Dee pla kung, Hom chang, and Cha hom) and Andrographis paniculata (Fah talai jone) were pruned and cultivated at the Chiang Mai Royal Agricultural Research Center. The morphology, biomass yield, and growth rates of the plants were observed after 90 days. Methanolic extracts of the dried aerial parts of these plants were analyzed for bioactive compounds, such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total lactone content (TLC), and antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). The results revealed that Hom chang had the maximum relative growth rate (RGR) of 2.64 x 10-3 cm/cm/day among the plants, as determined by the morphology analysis. Cha hom and Dee pla kung, on the other hand, had substantially greater biomass yields than the other species. Regarding chemical properties, Dee pla kung exhibited high TPC (13.66 ± 0.10 mg GAE/g), TFC (17.25 ± 0.31 mg CE/g), and TLC (9.57 ± 0.59%). In addition, Dee pla kung, a species of Phlogacanthus, exhibited significant antioxidant activity and was comparable to Fah talai jone (genus Andrographis) in terms of biomass yield and chemical properties. These findings lay the groundwork for creating future herbal remedies from local plants and their potential use in the medicinal industry.